Refuge Allendale Punctate

from David Anderson's Refuge Type Descriptions

Background

This type is equivalent to Allendale Punctate, which it replaces. The type Allendale Punctate was originally defined by Stoltman (1974:276-277), based on a sample of 158 sherds from 16 sites on Groton Plantation, on the lower Savannah River in Allendale County, South Carolina. The ware is identical to what Peterson (1971b:77, 79) has called Refuge Irregular Punctate. While Stoltman (1974:237-238) thought the type might have been "a minor element in some Wilmington assemblages" (e.g., post Deptford pre-Savannah), Peterson (1971a) was able to demonstrate that it occurred early in the Refuge Phase. A similar age is evident at Mattassee Lake, where incorporation into the Refuge series as a variety of Refuge Punctate was proposed (i.e., Refuge Punctate var. Mattassee). See Background discussion for Refuge Dentate Stamped, Refuge Separate Punctate.

Sorting Criteria

Individual, "closely spaced, randomly oriented punctations that must have been made by a composite instrument rather than one impression at a time—a handful of straw or twigs? Individual punctations never exceed 5 mm in diameter and are most often less than 3 mm in diameter. Impressions were made by an instrument held vertically or at an angle to the surface in about equal proportion" (Stoltman 1974:276). Paste ranges from appreciable sand to temperless to tempered with small (0.5-2.0 mm) lumps of aplastic clay (grog). Both interior and exterior surfaces are well smoothed. Flat, excurvate rims are ubiquitous; lips are typically undecorated.

Distribution

Poorly documented. The variety appears to be a minority ware among Refuge ceramics, with a distribution comparable to that for the series (see Refuge Dentate Stamped). Reported along the lower Savannah River on Groton Plantation (e.g., Peterson 1971a, 1971b; Stoltman 1974) and the Savannah River Site (Sassaman and Anderson 1990:180, 188-191), and at Mattassee Lake on the lower Santee River. Isolated examples occasionally noted or reported from elsewhere in the Georgia/South Carolina coastal plain (e.g., Gregorie 1925:Plate 6; Miller 1950:255; DePratter 1976: Figure 1). In an examination of ceramics from 313 sites across the coastal plain of South Carolina, only eight Refuge Allendale Punctate sherds were observed, out of a total sample of 19,861 (Anderson 1975b).

Chronological Position

Early Woodland period (1000BC - 800BC). At Mattassee Lake Refuge Allendale Punctate occurs stratigraphically early, coeval with the Thom's Creek types, and below Refuge Dentate Stamped, in the 38BK226 excavation block. This suggests that the ware may date to the early part of the Refuge Phase.

Primary References

Stoltman (1974); Peterson (1971a, 1971b); DePratter (1976); Anderson (1975b); Gregorie (1925); Miller (1950); Anderson et al. (1982); Sassaman and Anderson (1990: 180-188-191).